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sleeves showed considerably less corrosion resistance after one hour heat treatment at 250°F as compared to the as-plated condition. While this process was initially considered as being a worthy cadmium replacement, the questionable characteristics under high-temperature environments excluded its consideration under further review. ELECTROPLATED ZINC-NICKEL Zinc-nickel electroplating processes are mature, commercially available systems that can deposit alloys of 5–15% nickel (balance zinc) from an aqueous solution. Zinc-nickel alloys can be deposited from both acid and alkaline processes. Boeing has found that the alkaline process is easier to maintain and provides a more consistent coating composition.5 From a performance standpoint, the NDCEE found that a proprietary acid zinc-nickel coating with CCC passed bend adhesion, paint adhesion, and hydrogen embrittlement tests, but displayed only marginal EIC performance19 (see Table 1). The corrosion resistance was significantly less than the cadmium baselines, but increased coating thickness and selecting a suitable conversion coating may improve those results—although the implications of these changes to the form, fit, and function of the electrical connector would need to be identified. The proprietary alkaline zinc-nickel coating with a CCC performed similarly to the acid zinc-nickel in this study19 (see Table 1). Previous TARDEC work also found alkaline zinc-nickel coatings with a CCC to be promising for some electrical connector designs, particularly on MIL-C-83513 microminiature D-subminiature connectors, but less promising on other connector designs. Based on these promising results, zinc-nickel has seen implementation as a cadmium replacement process in several areas. The NDCEE work19 provided information that assisted Rolls Royce Defense Aerospace in qualifying zincnickel as an acceptable alternative to cadmium on the T56 engine system. Boeing also found that zinc-nickel plating is an acceptable coating to replace cadmium on component parts made of low strength steel (less than 200 ksi), stainless steel, aluminum, and copper alloys.1 Other ongoing projects involving this process include the aforementioned partnership between Lockheed-Martin, Alcoa, and the U.S. Air Force, which is evaluating several coatings, including both acid and alkaline zinc-nickel, to replace cadmium for military and commercial fasteners.15 It is recognized that both acid and alkaline zinc-nickel processes may provide an acceptable alternative coating for cadmium in many applications. Acid zincnickel processes have traditionally been used; however, some embrittlement issues have been related to this process.1 For this reason, Boeing restricts the use of acid zinc-nickel to steels with ultimate tensile strength of 220 ksi or less. While these issues may not be relevant for electrical connectors, a post-process bake has been found to both relieve hydrogen embrittlement and enhance corrosion properties.2 In any case, alkaline zinc-nickel appears to be the stronger candidate for this application, due to the reduction in required maintenance of the bath and the aforementioned current interest in the properties of this coating. ION VAPOR DEPOSITED ALUMINUM AND ALLOYS Ion vapor deposited (IVD) aluminum is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process in which a part is placed in a vacuum chamber and glow discharge cleaned. Pure aluminum is then melted in heated ceramic boats until it evaporates and 357

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