Metal Finishing Guide Book

2013

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Bath Type Palladium chloride PdCl2 Ammonia sulfamate NA Ammonia hydroxide pH electrode Pd metal AA, ICP, spectrophotometry NA Ammonia hydroxide pH electrode Pd metal AA, ICP, spectrophotometry Ammonia chloride Pd(NH3)4Cl2 AA, ICP, spectrophotometry Ammonia chloride Palladosamine chloride Analytical Method Pd metal P-salt/sulfamate Pd(NH3)2 (NO2)2 salt Parameters NA Hydrochloric acid pH titration Lead metal AA, ICP, spectrophotometry Pd-Ni alloy (80/20) Nickel metal AA, ICP Pd-Co alloy (80/20) Ammonia chloride NA Ammonia hydroxide pH electrode Table 5: Analysis of Pd, Pd-Ni, and Pd-Co Baths ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES It is important to review the flow sheet of a given plating process (rack, barrel, reel to reel) and understand the sequence of the operation. This guides the operator to prepare for a safe start by analyzing the plating baths needed in the process. Most job shops use traditional wet methods. The commercial use of instrumental techniques is limited due to complex operations, maintenance, frequent calibrations, personnel training, and the expense of initial investment. The workload of a plating plant can justify the use of any instrumental technique, such as AA, ICP, chromatographic techniques, or any dedicated electrochemical method. The following outline may be helpful in understanding their relationship. a) Photometric methods: 1. Spectrophotometry 2. Colorimetry (measures color intensity at a given wavelength) 3. Turbidimetry (measurement of radiation passing through suspension) 4. Nephelometry (measurement of radiations scattered from suspension) All methods are based upon the absorption of light. b) Spectrophotometric methods are based on emission of light. For example: 1. Flame photometry 462

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