Metal Finishing Guide Book


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Figure 2. Metallographic microscope: overview (A); configuration of the lenses (B); inverted stage (C); and, epoxy-mounted paint film (D). microscope where the light shines from the top down on to the sample. Many analytical laboratories purchase microscopes that have the capability of taking digital micrographs and viewing the pictures on an adjacent monitor. In addition, microscopes have a built-in scale that allows one to immediately measure the length or width of any section of the micrograph. This is particularly valuable when measuring the dry film thickness (DFT) of paints on a variety of substrates, including non-flat surfaces, such as stucco, concrete, and weathered wood. EXAMPLES OF FAILURE ANALYSIS The following sections are some examples of failure analysis. Each question is immediately followed by a scenario setting the scene/tone for the question. 1. Did the contractor comply with the paint specification? A Customer Specification calls for a fabricator to galvanize a steel product, apply an epoxy primer, and followed by a polyurethane top coat. The product was to be exposed to an aggressive marine environment, but after only a few years, the product failed prematurely due to extensive corrosion. The fabricator denied he had done anything wrong and insisted he had followed the Customer's Specification to the letter. Samples of the failed steel were cross-sectioned and analyzed using a metallographic microscope. Figure 3 is a representative image. The microscopic analysis 527

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