Metal Finishing Guide Book

2011-2012 Surface Finishing Guidebook

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Table VIII. Standard Acid Copper Baths General formulation: Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Chloride Current density Semibright plating (Clifton-Phillips): Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Chloride Thiourea Wetting agent Bright plating (Beaver): Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Chloride Thiourea Dextrin Bright plating (Clifton-Phillips): Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Chloride Thiourea Molasses 26-33 oz/gal (195-248 g/L) 4-10 oz/gal (30-75 g/L) 50-120 ppma 20-100 A/ft2 33 oz/gal (248 g/L) 1.5 oz/gal (11 g/L) 50-120 ppma 0.0001 oz/gal (0.00075 g/L) 0.027 oz/gal (0.2 g/L) 28 oz/gal (210 g/L) 8 oz/gal (60 g/L) 50-120 ppma 0.0013 oz/gal (0.01 g/L) 0.0013 oz/gal (0.01 g/L) 26.5 oz/gal (199 g/L) 4 oz/gal (30 g/L) 50-120 ppma 0.005 oz/gal (0.0375 g/L) 0.1 oz/gal (0.75 g/L) a10 ml of reagent grade concentrated hydrochloric acid per 100 gallons is equivalent to 12 ppm. the anode to lose its black, protective film and cause rough deposits; excessively low current densities can cause copper sulfate buildup, which can cause a reduction in throwing power, and a thick anode film, which can reduce the anode's conductivity. Anode and cathode efficiencies are essentially 100%. Since copper sulfate plating has become of major importance to the industry, a troubleshooting guide is given in this section (see Table X). Standard Acid Copper Plating Table VIII lists the standard formulations for copper sulfate baths. Air agitation or solution sparging with or without mechanical agitation, is recommended. High-Throw Bath The formulation shown in Table IX is used in printed circuit, barrel plating, and other applications where high throwing power is required. Table IX. High-Throw Acid Copper Bath Copper sulfate Sulfuric acid Chloride Proprietary additive(s) 8.0-10.0 oz/gal (60.0-75.0 g/L) 25.0-30.0 oz/gal (187-225 g/L) 50-100 ppma Per vendor recommendations a10 ml of reagent grade concentrated hydrochloric acid per 100 gallons is equivalent to 12 ppm. 205

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