Metal Finishing Guide Book

2011-2012 Surface Finishing Guidebook

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207 Table X. Troubleshooting Guide for Acid Copper Sulfate Plating Problem Cause High current density burning Loss of brightness (in bright formulations) Insufficient agitation Organic contamination Low chloride (bright baths) Low additive Low copper, high acid Low temperature Organic contamination Low chloride High temperature Low copper Rough deposit Pitting Poor distribution Low current Current supply AC ripple Organic contamination Organic contamination Low sulfuric acid Low additive High chloride Current density too low High temperature Anode polarization Tin, gold contamination Low temperature Improper anodes High chloride High sulfuric acid Low copper sulfate Organic contamination Low or nonuniform agitation Excessive anode area Improper anode film Organic contamination Anode slough Low chloride Particles in solution Torn anode bags Improper anodes Low chloride Corrective Action Analyze and adjust Heat bath Determine addition by Hull cell Carbon treat Analyze and adjust Analyze and adjust Cool the bath Replace torn bag Analyze and adjust Filter bath Analyze and adjust Improve and adjust Adjust Dummy Determine addition by Hull cell Analyze and adjust Dummy with a copper foil (no current) Heat bath Analyze and dilute bath Analyze and adjust Carbon treat Increase current Cool bath Use phosphorized copper anodes Analyze and adjust Carbon treat Bag anodes Adjust to below 10% Carbon treat Carbon treat 1. Wash off anode film and dummy to reform film 2. Precipitate with silver sulfate or nitrate and carbon filter 3. Dilute Bright baths require phosphorized anodes Lower current, unless agitation can be improved Carbon treat 1. Wash off anode film and dummy to reform film 2. Precipitate with silver sulfate or nitrate and carbon filter 3. Dilute

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