Metal Finishing Guide Book

2011-2012 Surface Finishing Guidebook

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Table I. Typical Plating Bath Components and Operating Parameters Electroless Bath Acid nickel (170-200O Temperature 77-93° C pH F) (medium P) (0.5-1 mil) (high P) 4.4-5.2 6.0-6.5 (low P) Alkaline nickel Copper (79-205° 26-95° C F) (79-158° 26-70° C 8.5-14.0 (0.4-0.5 mil) F) 9.0-13.0 (0.04-0.3 mil) sulfate Copper acetate Copper 1.7-5 µm Copper Gold (149-190° 65-88° C F) Palladium Cobalt (113-165° 45-73° C (185-203° 85-95° C 10.0-13.0 (0.08-0.2 mil) cyanide Gold 2-5 µ F) F) 8.0-12.0 9.0-11.0 (0.08-0.2 mil) chloride 2-5 µm (0.1-0.4 mil) 2.5-10 µm chloride Cobalt sulfate Cobalt formate Copper nitrate Gold carbonate Copper Deposition Rate/hr Metal Salt(s) 12.7-25.4 µm Nickel sulfate Nickel 10-12.7 µm Nickel sulfate Nickel chloride Reducing Agent(s) Complexing Sodium hypophosphite Citric acid Sodium borohydride Dimethylamine borane (DMAB) chloride Sodium borohydride DMAB Hydrazine Formate Formaldehyde DMAB Succinic acid Proprionic acid Glycolic acid Sodium hypophosphite Sodium citrate Lactic acid EDTA Sodium acetate Rochelle salt Glycolic acid Sodium hypophosphite Pyridium-3-sulfonic acid Potassium tartrate Quadrol chloride Palladium Sodium hypophosphite DMAB Potassium cyanoborohydride aurate Palladium Triethylamine borane bromide Sodium hypophosphite Citric acid DMAB Sodium hypophosphite Potassium citrate Potassium borohydride Potassium DMAB Ammonia Methylamine EDTA Sodium citrate Ammonium chloride Succinic acid Potassium tartrate EDTA Sodium phosphate Sodium borate Ammonium hydroxide Agent(s) or Chelators Sodium citrate Sodium acetate Citric acid Stabilizer(s) Thioorganic compounds (i.e., Fluoride compounds Heavy metal salts Thiourea Sodium pyrophosphate Selenium salts Thiodiglycolic MBT Thiourea Thioorganic compounds Triethanolamine Thallium salts Heavy metal salts Vanadium pentoxide Potassium ferrocyanide Sodium cyanide Alkali metal cyanide Alkali hydrogen fluoride Acetylacetone Thioorganic compounds Organic cyanides Thiourea Thioorganic compounds Thiocyanates Urea pH Adjustment Ammonium hydroxide Sulfuric acid 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, MBT) Oxy anions (i.e., iodates) Thiourea Ammonium hydroxide Sulfuric acid Sodium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Ammonium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid Ammonium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide 360

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