Metal Finishing Guide Book

2011-2012 Surface Finishing Guidebook

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Page 454 of 707

Bath Type Tin-lead H2 Parameters Tin, Lead SO4, HBF4 alkylsulfonic Tin-sulfate/H2 Tin/MSA SO4 Tin/Cl/F, tin-pheonolsulfonic acid Immersion tin Alkaline tin Tin-Bi,Tin-Ag,Tin-Bi-Ag Sulfuric acid Additives Tin Acids Additives Tin Tin Sn, Bi, Ag Table 6: Tin-Lead, Pure Tin, and Lead-free Tin Alloys c) Electroanalytical methods involving electric current and potential. 1. Electrogravimetric 2. Conductimetric 3. Potentiometric 4. Coulometric 5. Polarography 6. Amperometric d) Chromatography is a method of separation of components. 1. Gas chromatography (GC) is suitable for volatile compounds by separation on a specific column and speciation by GC-MS. 2. Column, thin layer, and paper chromatography are seldom used in plating bath analysis. 3. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) involves separation of components using suitable columns and eluents. The separated species can be identified by MS. 4. Ion chromatography (IC) deals with separation of anions or cations using specific columns and detection achieved by UV-Vis, refractive index, and variations in conductivity. The separations occur due to the difference in ionic mobilities and differential distribution coefficients of various components. Solvents conforming to spectroscopy and chromatography grades should be used to eliminate background noise. TITRIMETRIC METHODS The active component of a plating bath sample is stiochiometrically titrated with a standard solution of a required titrant. The end point of a titration may be visu- ally determined with a color change of the indicator or by an electrometric method. Indicators are auxiliary reagents added to samples and aid in end- point determination. For low concentrations, volumetric methods yield inaccurate 453 Analytical Method AA, ICP, titrations Acid-base titration Spectro, HPLC, IC, hull cell AA, ICP, titration Titration Spectro, HPLC, IC, hull cell AA, ICP, titration AA, ICP, titration AA, ICP

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