Metal Finishing Guide Book

2012 Organic Finishing Guidebook Issue

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Fig. 1. Phosphate crystal structures. (a) low zinc phosphate process applied in dip; (b) low zinc phosphate applied by spray; (c) heavy zinc phos- phate for cold-forming purposes; (d) manganese phosphate for break-in purposes; (e) manganese modified low zinc phosphate applied by spray; (f) bare sheet metal surface for reference. 30

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