Metal Finishing Guide Book


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Page 133 of 903

Fig. 3. Sequence of operations for heavy zinc or manganese phosphating. dustrial importance of cold-forming technology for the entire steel working industry sector today would be inconceivable without the metal surface technology including zinc phosphate and lube. The expression cold forming implies that the change of form is effected without preheating the workpiece. The noncutting of a workpiece is performed under the action of outside forces (tensile, compressive, and shear stresses), which strain the material beyond the yield point and then force the material, now in the plastic state, to assume the form imposed on it by the tool. During this process the mass and composition of the material remain unchanged. The internal processes taking place in the material consist of permanent changes in the position of the atoms within the crystal lattice. The crystallo130

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