Metal Finishing Guide Book


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coating materials and application methods HIGH-SOLIDS, LOW-VOC, SOLVENT-BASED COATINGS BY RON JOSEPH (1944 - 2011) RON JOSEPH & ASSOCIATES INC., SAN JOSE, CALIF. This article focuses on the most common high-solids, solvent-based coating technologies. Each of the resin systems discussed is available to meet the Reasonable Available Control Technology (RACT) limits of most state volatile organic compounds (VOCs) regulations. Most systems are also available to satisfy the more stringent regulations of California and the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) requirements of other states. The discussions and tables presented in this article provide sufficient detail to enable a company that is out of compliance with state regulations to make an initial selection of potential coatings that may satisfy the company's performance and production requirements; however, it will still be necessary to ask vendors for samples and to conduct comprehensive production-type tests before implementing the technology of choice. AIR AND FORCE-DRIED ALKYDS These alkyds are air- or force-dried at temperatures less than 90��C (194��F). Alkyd resins are essentially oil-modified polyesters and are made by reacting an alcohol with an acid. [Eq. (1)} Acid + Alcohol = Oil-free polyester (1) Typical acids used are phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride. Typical alcohols used are pentaerythratol, glycerine, ethylene glycol, trimethylol ethane and trimethylol propane. These acids and alcohols can be combined in various combinations under very precise and controlled conditions. They form a wide range of alkyd resins, each of which, either alone or in combination, has its own distinctive chemical and physical properties. The coating formulator chooses the appropriate resin, or combination of resins according to customer requirements (see Table I). Alkyds can also be modified with other resins to change or improve their fiDark industrial air-drying enamels Maintenance enamel Automovtive refinishing top coats Industrial air-dry primers and top coats Chemical resistant coatings Metal primers Industrial maintenance enamels Toy Enamels Implement enamels Exterior metal finishes Exterior maintenance enamels where color and gloss retention are desired Table I. Typical End-Uses of Solvent-borne Modified Alkyds 169

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