Metal Finishing Guide Book


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to meet many military primer and top coat specifications (MIL-P-23377, MILP-53022, MIL-C-22750, MIL-P-24441). (3) They can be formulated into a wide range of colors and gloss levels. (4) Depending on the choice of curing agent (component B) they can achieve excellent hardness and chemical resistance, particularly alkali resistance. (5) They exhibit excellent resistance to many solvents, fresh water, sea water, and hot water. (6) Some formulations are more flexible than others, depending on the choice of curing agent. (7) They can be air-dried at ambient temperatures within 3 to 5 hours and force-dried at 150��F within 30 minutes. (8) They are primarily used in military, marine, offshore, and chemical plant applications. (9) Some high-build formulations allow for thick films in excess of 5 mils in one application. Disadvantages are the following: (1) Usually they are two-component systems comprising component A (clear or colored epoxy resin) and component B (curing agent); therefore, they must be accurately mixed. (2) Any unused, mixed coating must be disposed of as hazardous waste. (3) They offer poor resistance when exposed directly to UV light (sunlight). (4) High-solids materials are difficult to apply to achieve dry films less than 1.5 mils, particularly when coating complex shapes. (5) They are generally not available in small quantities of custom colors. (6) Some formulations require an induction period of 20���30 minutes after Component A: Component B; Cured coating: + = Polyester polyiscoyanate Polyurethane (clear or pigmented) (5) Component A: Component B; Cured coating: + = Acrylic polyiscoyanate Polyurethane (clear or pigmented) (5) the two components have been mixed before coating can be applied. (7) Pot-life limitations of 4 to 6 hours or less at ambient temperatures are common. (8) Application equipment must be cleaned before coating starts to set. (9) They are sensitive to cleanliness of the substrate. (10) It is difficult to strip coating from damaged, coated parts. (11) Some formulations, particularly those based on the more chemically resistant polyamine resins, can cause severe dermatitis and other health effects. They must be used with caution. CATALYZED POLYURETHANES Polyurethanes are a type of coating formed by the reaction of a polyisocyanate with a polymer that contains hydroxyl functionality. Two-component polyurethanes are supplied in two separate containers, of which the first is usually labeled component A and the second component B. Component A can either be clear or pigmented, offering a wide range of colors and gloss levels. The primary resin (polyol) is usually an acrylic, polyester or polyether, each of which contains more than one hydroxyl group. The second container, component B, contains a multifunctional, prepolymerized isocyanate. When components A and B are mixed according to the manufacturers' prescribed ratios, the polymers react to form a highly cross-linked polyurethane. Figure 2 shows the simplified chemistry of the two components; Eqs. (5) and (6) depict the results of mixing the two components: 175

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