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and functional (corrosion protection) properties of the coating. Keeping the objective in mind that the final composition of the post-dip���s layer should only bear components that are commonly found in passivate layers limits the range of eligible compounds. The formulation of the post-dip solution was adjusted until the best combination was found that achieved satisfactory appearance and corrosion protection performance. By fine adjusting an inteFigure 8: XPS profile of Tridur Finish 300 (20% v/v, pH 5.5, grated additive system, the deposi45��C) on Tridur ZnNi H1. The vertical line indicates the sputter depth at which the change in composition, mainly tion of the post-dip could be nickel concentration, indicates the transition from post-dip attuned towards a highly uniform to passivate at about 180 nm. dispersal of the deposit while imparting a homogenous gloss with a minimized tendency to form drop marks (right panel in Fig. 5). With the major component of the final composition being chromium(III) in a carefully adjusted coordination moiety, the surface layer from post-dip treatment does not bear any non-passivate like components. Variations on the application parameters within reasonable limits around a set of initial figures were conducted in order to establish the Figure 9: Structural proposal for the chromium(III) final application parameters on phosphate���based post-dip layer deposited on the trivalent black passivated zinc���nickel (Tridur chromium based passivate. R represents either hydrogen ZnNi H1). Temperature, pH, make(H) or some organic rest, such as an alkyl or aryl-rest. up concentration, and dwell time, as well as drying temperature, have been changed individually, keeping the remaining parameters constant. Application at pH 5.5 (45��C) in a 20% v/v solution has been elaborated to be the optimum set of parameters for the application on Tridur ZnNi H1. Dwell-time variations showed no visible difference within 10���40 s. Drying temperature has been shown to be best between 70���90��C, for 10 min. The results were evaluated for both their decorative aspects and corrosion protection properties. A semi-quantitative EDX analysis of the surface of black passivated zinc���nickel shows only elements, which are typically also found on zinciferous surfaces with trivalent chromium conversion coatings applied (Fig. 6). The deposit from the final formulation adds to the passivate layer. Upon application, the newly developed post-dip acts like a second conversion coating on the conversion layer. For comparison, the EDX spectrum from black passivated zinc-nickel with an organic polymer/silicate-based sealer (Corrosil Plus 501) applied is shown in Figure 7. Obviously, the layer���s composition is completely different from that of 389

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