Metal Finishing Guide Book

2012-2013

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456 8.5-14.0 9.0-13.0 10.0-13.0 8.0-12.0 9.0-11.0 26-95��C (79-205��F) 26-70��C (79-158��F) 65-88��C (149-190��F) 45-73��C (113-165��F) 85-95��C (185-203��F) Alkaline nickel Copper Gold Palladium Cobalt 6.0-6.5 (low P) pH 4.4-5.2 (medium P) (high P) Temperature 77-93��C (170-200OF) Electroless Bath Acid nickel 2.5-10 ��m (0.1-0.4 mil) 2-5 ��m (0.08-0.2 mil) 2-5 �� (0.08-0.2 mil) 1.7-5 ��m (0.04-0.3 mil) 10-12.7 ��m (0.4-0.5 mil) Deposition Rate/hr 12.7-25.4 ��m (0.5-1 mil) Cobalt chloride Cobalt sulfate Copper sulfate Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper formate Copper nitrate Gold cyanide Gold chloride Potassium aurate Palladium chloride Palladium bromide Nickel sulfate Nickel chloride Metal Salt(s) Nickel sulfate Nickel chloride DMAB Sodium hypophosphite Sodium hypophosphite DMAB Triethylamine borane DMAB Sodium hypophosphite Potassium borohydride Potassium cyanoborohydride Formate Formaldehyde DMAB Sodium hypophosphite Sodium borohydride Sodium hypophosphite DMAB Hydrazine Reducing Agent(s) Sodium hypophosphite Sodium borohydride Dimethylamine borane (DMAB) Table I. Typical Plating Bath Components and Operating Parameters Sodium citrate Citric acid Ammonium chloride Succinic acid Ammonia Methylamine EDTA Sodium phosphate Potassium citrate Sodium borate Potassium tartrate EDTA Citric acid Sodium citrate Lactic acid Glycolic acid Sodium acetate Sodium pyrophosphate Rochelle salt EDTA Ammonium hydroxide Pyridium-3-sulfonic acid Potassium tartrate Quadrol Complexing Agent(s) or Chelators Citric acid Sodium citrate Succinic acid Proprionic acid Glycolic acid Sodium acetate Thioorganic compounds Organic cyanides Thiourea Thiocyanates Urea Thioorganic compounds Alkali metal cyanide Alkali hydrogen fluoride Acetylacetone Ammonium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Hydrochloric acid Potassium hydroxide Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Stabilizer(s) pH Adjustment Fluoride compounds Ammonium hydroxide Heavy metal salts Sulfuric acid Thiourea Thioorganic compounds (i.e., 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, MBT) Oxy anions (i.e., iodates) Thiourea Ammonium hydroxide Heavy metal salts Sulfuric acid Thioorganic compounds Sodium hydroxide Triethanolamine Thallium salts Selenium salts Thiodiglycolic Hydrochloric acid MBT Sulfuric acid Thiourea Sodium hydroxide Sodium cyanide Potassium hydroxide Vanadium pentoxide Potassium ferrocyanide

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