Metal Finishing Guide Book


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Bath Type Parameters Analytical Method Tin-lead Tin, Lead AA, ICP, titrations H2SO4, HBF4 alkylsulfonic Sulfuric acid Acid-base titration Additives Spectro, HPLC, IC, hull cell Tin-sulfate/H2SO4 Tin AA, ICP, titration Tin/MSA Acids Titration Tin/Cl/F, tin-pheonolsulfonic acid Additives Spectro, HPLC, IC, hull cell Immersion tin Tin AA, ICP, titration Alkaline tin Tin AA, ICP, titration Tin-Bi,Tin-Ag,Tin-Bi-Ag Sn, Bi, Ag AA, ICP Table 6: Tin-Lead, Pure Tin, and Lead-free Tin Alloys 4. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) c) Electroanalytical methods involving electric current and potential. 1. Electrogravimetric 2. Conductimetric 3. Potentiometric 4. Coulometric 5. Polarography 6. Amperometric d) Chromatography is a method of separation of components. 1. Gas chromatography (GC) is suitable for volatile compounds by separation on a specific column and speciation by GC-MS. 2. Column, thin layer, and paper chromatography are seldom used in plating bath analysis. 3. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) involves separation of components using suitable columns and eluents. The separated species can be identified by MS. 4. Ion chromatography (IC) deals with separation of anions or cations using specific columns and detection achieved by UV-Vis, refractive index, and variations in conductivity. The separations occur due to the difference in ionic mobilities and differential distribution coefficients of various components. Solvents conforming to spectroscopy and chromatography grades should be used to eliminate background noise. TITRIMETRIC METHODS The active component of a plating bath sample is stiochiometrically titrated with a standard solution of a required titrant. The end point of a titration may be visually determined with a color change of the indicator or by an electrometric 515

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